Annals of National Security:
As June 30th approaches, Israel looks to the Kurds
By Seymour M. Hersh
The New Yorker, June 28, 2004
[Some chosen excerpts from Hersh´s article. Underlines below added by Radio Islam for reasons of emphasis]
In a series of interviews in Europe, the Middle East, and the United States, officials told me that by the end of last year Israel had concluded that the Bush Administration would not be able to bring stability or democracy to Iraq, and that Israel needed other options. Prime Minister Ariel Sharons government decided, I was told, to minimize the damage that the war was causing to Israels strategic position by expanding its long-standing relationship with Iraqs Kurds and establishing a significant presence on the ground in the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Several officials depicted Sharons decision, which involves a heavy financial commitment, as a potentially reckless move that could create even more chaos and violence as the insurgency in Iraq continues to grow.
Israeli intelligence and military operatives are now quietly at work in Kurdistan, providing training for Kurdish commando units and, most important in Israels view, running covert operations inside Kurdish areas of Iran and Syria. Israel feels particularly threatened by Iran, whose position in the region has been strengthened by the war. The Israeli operatives include members of the Mossad, Israels clandestine foreign-intelligence service, who work undercover in Kurdistan as businessmen and, in some cases, do not carry Israeli passports.
Asked to comment, Mark Regev, the spokesman for the Israeli Embassy in Washington, said, The story is simply untrue and the relevant governments know its untrue. Kurdish officials declined to comment, as did a spokesman for the State Department.
However, a senior C.I.A. official acknowledged in an interview last week that the Israelis were indeed operating in Kurdistan. He told me that the Israelis felt that they had little choice: They think they have to be there. Asked whether the Israelis had sought approval from Washington, the official laughed and said, Do you know anybody who can tell the Israelis what to do? Theyre always going to do what is in their best interest. The C.I.A. official added that the Israeli presence was widely known in the American intelligence community.
The Israeli decision to seek a bigger foothold in Kurdistancharacterized by the former Israeli intelligence officer as Plan Bhas also raised tensions between Israel and Turkey. It has provoked bitter statements from Turkish politicians and, in a major regional shift, a new alliance among Iran, Syria, and Turkey, all of which have significant Kurdish minorities. In early June, Intel Brief, a privately circulated intelligence newsletter produced by Vincent Cannistraro, a retired C.I.A. counterterrorism chief, and Philip Giraldi, who served as the C.I.A.s deputy chief of base in Istanbul in the late nineteen-eighties, said:
Turkish sources confidentially report that the Turks are increasingly concerned by the expanding Israeli presence in Kurdistan and alleged encouragement of Kurdish ambitions to create an independent state. . . . The Turks note that the large Israeli intelligence operations in Northern Iraq incorporate anti-Syrian and anti-Iranian activity, including support to Iranian and Syrian Kurds who are in opposition to their respective governments.
Israeli involvement in Kurdistan is not new. Throughout the nineteen-sixties and seventies, Israel actively supported a Kurdish rebellion against Iraq, as part of its strategic policy of seeking alliances with non-Arabs in the Middle East.
A top German national-security official said in an interview that an independent Kurdistan with sufficient oil would have enormous consequences for Syria, Iran, and Turkey and would lead to continuing instability in the Middle Eastno matter what the outcome in Iraq is. There is also a widespread belief, another senior German official said, that some elements inside the Bush Administrationhe referred specifically to the faction headed by Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitzwould tolerate an independent Kurdistan. This, the German argued, would be a mistake. It would be a new Israela pariah state in the middle of hostile nations.
The Israelis, however, view the neighborhood, with the exception of Kurdistan, as hostile.
Israels immediate goal after June 30th is to build up the Kurdish commando units to balance the Shiite militiasespecially those which would be hostile to the kind of order in southern Iraq that Israel would like to see, the former [Israeli] senior intelligence official said. Of course, if a fanatic Sunni Baathist militia took controlone as hostile to Israel as Saddam Hussein wasIsrael would unleash the Kurds on it, too. The Kurdish armed forces, known as the peshmerga, number an estimated seventy-five thousand troops, a total that far exceeds the known Sunni and Shiite militias.
The former Israeli intelligence officer acknowledged that since late last year Israel has been training Kurdish commando units to operate in the same manner and with the same effectiveness as Israels most secretive commando units, the Mistaravim. The initial goal of the Israeli assistance to the Kurds, the former officer said, was to allow them to do what American commando units had been unable to dopenetrate, gather intelligence on, and then kill off the leadership of the Shiite and Sunni insurgencies in Iraq. (I was unable to learn whether any such mission had yet taken place.) The feeling was that this was a more effective way to get at the insurgency, the former officer said. But the growing Kurdish-Israeli relationship began upsetting the Turks no end. Their issue is that the very same Kurdish commandos trained for Iraq could infiltrate and attack in Turkey.
The Kurdish-Israeli collaboration inevitably expanded, the Israeli said. Some Israeli operatives have crossed the border into Iran, accompanied by Kurdish commandos, to install sensors and other sensitive devices that primarily target suspected Iranian nuclear facilities. The former officer said, Look, Israel has always supported the Kurds in a Machiavellian wayas balance against Saddam. Its Realpolitik. He added, By aligning with the Kurds, Israel gains eyes and ears in Iran, Iraq, and Syria. He went on, What Israel was doing with the Kurds was not so unacceptable in the Bush Administration.
Senior German officials told me, with alarm, that their
intelligence community also has evidence that Israel is using its new
leverage inside Kurdistan, and within the Kurdish communities in Iran
and Syria, for intelligence and operational purposes. Syrian and
Lebanese officials believe that Israeli intelligence played a role in
a series of violent protests in Syria in mid-March in which Syrian
Kurdish dissidents and Syrian troops clashed, leaving at least thirty
people dead. (There are nearly two million Kurds living in Syria,
which has a population of seventeen million.) Much of the fighting
took place in cities along Syrias borders with Turkey and
Kurdish-controlled Iraq. Michel Samaha, the Lebanese Minister of
Information, told me that while the disturbances amounted to an
uprising by the Kurds against the leadership of Bashir Assad, the
Syrian President, his government had evidence that Israel was
preparing the Kurds to fight all around Iraq, in Syria, Turkey,
and Iran. Theyre being programmed to do commando