The Rothschild Dynasty
- Mayer Amschel´s
- The battle of
- Coup of coups
Jewish Encyclopaedia, volume X, 1905 (p. 494)
- Clean up in
"inaudibility and invisibility"
- Rothschilds and
- Plan of
bankers pursue their goal
- Lineage of a modern
For many years the words international banker, Rothschild, Money and Gold have held a mystical type of fascination for many people around the world but particularly in the United States.
Over the years in the United States, the international bankers have come in for a great deal of criticism by a wide variety of individuals who have held high offices of public trust - men whose opinions are worthy of note and whose responsibilities placed them in positions where they knew what was going on behind the scenes in politics and high finance.
President Andrew Jackson, the only one of our presidents whose administration totally abolished the National Debt, condemned the international bankers as a "den of vipers" which he was determined to "rout out" of the fabric of American life. Jackson claimed that if only the American people understood how these vipers operated on the American scene "there would a revolution before morning."
Congressman Louis T. McFadden who, for more than ten years, served as chairman of the Banking and Currency Committee, stated that the international bankers are a "dark crew of financial pirates who would cut a man's throat to get a dollar out of his pocket... They prey upon the people of these United States."
John F. Hylan, then mayor of New York, said in 1911 that "the real menace of our republic is the invisible government which, like a giant octopus, sprawls its slimy length over our city, state and nation. At the head is a small group of banking houses, generally referred to as 'international bankers.'"
Were these leading public figures correct in their assessment of the situation, or were they the victims of some exotic form of paranoia?
Let's examine history analytically and unemotionally and uncover the facts. The truth, as it unfolds, will prove to be eye-opening and educational to those who are seeking to more clearly understand the mind-boggling events that have been (and are) taking place on the national and international scenes.
Europe, towards the end of the eighteenth century or at the time of the American Revolution, was very different from what we know in the same area today. It was composed of a combination of large and small kingdoms, duchies and states which were constantly engaged in squabbles among themselves. Most people were reduced to the level of serfs - with no political rights. The meager 'privileges' that were granted to them by their 'owners' could be withdrawn at a moment's notice.
It was during this period of time that a young man appeared on the European scene who was to have a tremendous impact on the future course of world history; his name was Mayer Amschel Bauer. In later years his name, which he had changed, became synonamous with wealth, power and influence. He was the first of the Rothschilds - the first truly international banker!
Mayer Amschel Bauer was born in Frankfurt-On-The-Main in Germany in 1743. He was the son of Moses Amschel Bauer an itinerant money lender and goldsmith who, tiring of his wanderings in Eastern Europe, decided to settle down in the city where his first son was born. He opened a shop, or counting house, on Judenstrasse (or Jew Street). Over the door leading into the shop he placed a large Red Shield.
At a very early age Mayer Amschel Bauer showed that he possessed immense intellectual ability, and his father spent much of his time teaching him everything he could about the money lending business, and the lessons he had learned from many sources. The older Bauer originally hoped to have his son trained as a Rabbi but the father's untimely death put an end to such plans.
A few years after his father's death Mayer Amschel Bauer went to work as a clerk in a bank owned by the Oppenheimers in Hannover. His superior ability was quickly recognized and his advancement within the firm was swift. He was awarded a junior partnership.
Shortly thereafter he returned to Frankurt where he was able to purchase the business his father had established in 1750. The big Red Shield was still displayed over the door. Recognizing the true significance of the Red Shield (his father had adopted it as his emblem from the Red Flag which was the emblem of the revolutionary minded Jews in Eastern Europe), Mayer Amschel Bauer changed his name to Rothschild; in this way the House of Rothschild came into being.
The base for a vast accmulation of wealth was laid during the 1760s when Amschel Rothschild renewed his acquaintance with General von Estorff for whom he ran errands while employed at the Oppenheimer Bank.
When Rothschild discovered that the general, who was now attached to the court of Prince William of Hanau, was interested in rare coins he decided to take full advantage of the situation. By offering valuable coins and trinkets at discount prices he soon ingratiated himself with the general and other influential members of the court.
One day he was ushered into the presence of Prince William himself. His Highness bought a handel of his rarest medals and coins. This was the first transaction between a Rothschild and a head of state. Soon Rothschild was doing business with other princes.
Before long Rothschild tried another ploy to secure an 'in' with various local princes - and to further his own aims! He wrote them letters that played on their princely vanity while asking them for their patronage. A typical letter would read:
"It has been my particular high and good fortune to serve your lofty princely Serenity at various times and to your most gracious satisfaction. I stand ready to exert all my energies and my entire fortune to serve your lofty princely serenity whenever in future it shall please you to command me. An especially powerful incentive to this end would be given me if your lofty princely serenity were to distinguish me with an appointment as one of your Highness' Court Factors. I am making bold to beg for this with the more confidence in the assurance that by so doing I am not giving any trouble; while for my part such a distinction would lift up my commercial standing and be of help to me in many other ways that I feel certain thereby to make my own way and fortune here in the city of Frankfurt."
His tactics paid off. On September 21, 1769, Rothschild was able to nail a sign bearing the arms of Hess-Hanau to the front of his shop. In gold characters it read: "M. A. Rothschild, by appointment court factor to his serene highness, Prince William of Hanau."
In 1770 Rothschild married Gutele Schnaper who was aged seventeen. They had a large family consititing of five sons and five daughters. Their sons were Amschel, Salomon, Nathan, Kalmann (Karl) and Jacob (James).
History records that William of Hanau, "whose crest had been famous in Germany since the Middle Ages," was a dealer in human flesh. For a price the Prince, who was closely related to the various royal families of Europe, would rent out troops to any nation. His best customer was the British government which wanted troops for such projects as trying to keep the American colonists in line.
He did exceptionally well with his 'rent-a-troop' business. When he died he left the largest fortune ever accumulated in Europe to that time, $200,000,000. Rothschild biographer Frederic Morton describes William as "Europe's most blue-cold blooded loan shark" (The Rothschilds, Fawcett Crest, 1961, p. 40).
Rothschild became an agent for this 'human cattle' dealer. He must have worked diligently in his new position of responsibility because, when William was forced to flee to Denmark, he left 600,000 pounds (then valued at $3,000,000) with Rothschild for safekeeping.
For an account of what happened next we turn to the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905 edition, Volume 10, p. 494: "According to legend this money was hidden away in wine casks, and, escaping the search of Napoleon's soldiers when they entered Frankfort, was restored intact in the same casks in 1814, when the elector returned to the electorate. The facts are somewhat less romantic, and more businesslike."
Pay particular attention to the last nine words. They are loaded with significance. Here the leading Jewish authority states that what Rothschild actually did with the $3,000,000 was "more businesslike," from a Jewish point of view, than what was stated in the legend.
The simple truth of the matter is that Rothschild embezzled the money from Prince William. But even before the money reached Rothschild it was not 'clean' (or Kosher). The vast sum had been paid to William of Hess by the British government for the services of his soldiers. The money was originally embezzled by William from his troops who were legally entitled to it.
With the twice embezzled money as a solid foundation, Mayer Amschel Rothschild decided to vastly expand his operations - and become the first international banker.
A couple of years earlier Rothschild had sent his son, Nathan, to England to take care of the family business in that country. After a brief stay in Manchester, where he operated as a merchant, Nathan, on instructions from his father, moved to London and set up shop as a merchant banker. To get the operation under way Rothschild gave his son the three million dollars he had embezzled from William of Hess.
The Jewish Encyclopaedia for 1905 tells us that Nathan invested the loot in "gold from the East India company knowing that it would be needed for Wellington's peninsula campaign." On the stolen money Nathan made "no less than four profits; (1) On the sale of Wellington's paper [which he bought at 50 cents on the dollar and collected at par]; (2) on the sale of gold to Wellington; (3) on its repurchase; and (4) on forwarding it to Portugal. This was the beginning of the great fortunes of the house" (p. 494).
Yes, the Jewish Encyclopaedia claims that the great fortune accumulated by the Rothschilds over the years was based on the "businesslike" method of fraud.
With their huge accumulation of ill-gotten gain the family established branches of the House of Rothschild in Berlin, Vienna, Paris and Naples. Rothschild placed a son in charge of each branch. Amschel was placed in charge of the Berlin branch; Salomon was over the Vienna branch; Jacob (James) went to Paris and Kalmann (Karl) opened up the Rothschild bank in Naples. The headquarters of the House of Rothschild was, and is, in London.
An anonymous contemporary described Nathan Rothschild as he leaned against the 'Rothschild Piller' at the London Stock Exchange, hung his heavy hands into his pockets, and began to release silent, motionless, implacable cunning:
"Eyes are usually called the windows of the soul. But in Rothschild's case you would conclude that the windows are false ones, or that there was no soul to look out of them. There comes not one pencil of light from the interior, neither is there one gleam of that which comes from without reflected in any direction. The whole puts you in mind of an empty skin, and you wonder why it stands upright without at least something in it. By and by another figure comes up to it. It then steps two paces aside, and the most inquisitive glance that you ever saw, and a glance more inquisitive than you would ever have thought of, is drawn out of the fixed and leaden eye, as if one were drawing a sword from a scabbard. The visiting figure, which has the appearance of coming by accident and not by design, stops just a second or two, in the course of which looks are exchanged which, though you cannot translate, you feel must be of most important meaning. After these the eyes are sheathed up again, and the figure resumes its stony posture.
During the morning numbers of visitors come, all of whom meet with a similar reception and vanish in a similar manner. Last of all the figure itself vanishes, leaving you utterly at a loss." (Frederic Morton, The Rothschilds, p. 65)
When he died on September 19, 1812, the founder of the House of Rothschild left a will that was just days old. In it, he laid down specific laws by which the House that bore his name would operate in future year.
The laws were as follows:
(1) All key positions in the House of Rothschild were to be held by members of the family, and not by hired hands. Only male members of the family were allowed to participate in the business.
The eldest son of the eldest son was to be the head of the family unless the majority of the rest of the family agreed otherwise. It was for this exceptional reason that Nathan, who was particularly brilliant, was appointed head of the House of Rothschild in 1812.
(2) The family was to intermarry with their own first and second cousins, thus preserving the vast fortune. This rule was strictly adhered to early on but later, when other rich Jewish banking houses came on the scene, it was relaxed to allow some of the Rothschilds to marry selected members of the new elite.
(3) Amschel forbade his heirs "most explicitly, in any circumstances whatever, to have any public inventory made by the courts, or otherwise, of my estate .... Also I forbid any legal action and any publication of the value of the inheritance .... Anyone who disregards these provisions and takes any kind of action which conflicts with them will immediately be regarded as having disputed the will, and shall suffer the consequences of so doing."
(4) Rothschild ordered a perpetual family partnership and provided that the female members of the family, their husbands and children should receive their interest in the estate subject to the management of the male members. They were to have no part in the management of the business. Anyone who disputed this arrangement would lose their interest in the Estate. (The last stipulation was specifically designed to seal the mouths of anyone who might feel like breaking with the family. Rothschild obviously felt that there were a lot of things under the family 'rug' that should never see the light of day).
The mighty strength of the House of Rothschild was based on a variety of important factors:
(A) Complete secrecy resulting from total family control of all business dealings;
(B) An uncanny, one could almost say a supernatural ability to see what lay ahead and to take full advantage of it. The whole family was driven by an insatiable lust for the accumulation of wealth and power, and
(C) Total ruthlessness in all business dealings.
Biographer Frederic Morton, in The Rothschilds, tells us that Mayer Amschel Rothschild and his five sons were "wizards" of finance, and "fiendish calculators" who were motivated by a "demonic drive" to succeed in their secret undertakings.
From the same authoritative source we learn that "on Saturday evenings, when prayer was done at the synagogue, Mayer would inveigle the rabbi into his house. They would bend towards one another on the green upholstery, sipping slowly at a glass of wine and argue about first and last things deep into the night. Even on work days...Mayer...was apt to tare down the big book of the Talmud and recite from it...while the entire family must sit stock still and listen" (p. 31).
It could be said of the Rothschilds that the "family that preys together stays together." And prey they did! Morton states that it is difficult for the average person to "comprehend Rothschild nor even the reason why he having so much, wanted to conquer more." All five brothers were imbued with this same spirit of cunning and conquest.
The Rothschilds formed no true friendships or alliances. Their associates were but mere acquaintances who were used to further the interests of the House of Rothschild, and then thrown on the garbage heap of history when they had served their purpose or outlived their usefulness.
The truth of this statement is demonstrated by another passage from Frederic Morton's book. He relates how, in 1806, Napoleon declared that it was his "object to remove the house of Hess-Cassel from rulership and to strike it out of the list of powers."
"Thus Europe's mightiest man decreed erasure of the rock on which the new Rothschild firm had been built. Yet, curiously, the bustle didn't diminish at the house of the [Red] Shield.... Rothschilds still sat, avid and impenetrable, portfolios wedged between body and arm.
"They saw neither peace nor war, neither slogans or manifestos, nor orders of the day, neither death nor glory. They saw none of the things that blinded the world. They saw only steppingstones. Prince William had been one. Napoleon would be the next" (pp. 38,39).
'Curious'? Not exactly! The House of Rothschild was helping to finance the French dictator and, as a result, had free access to French markets at all times. Some years later, when both France and England were blockading each other's coast lines, the only merchants who were allowed to freely run the blockades were - yes, you guessed it, the Rothschilds. They were financing both sides!
"The efficiency which powered Mayer's sons brought on enormous economic spring cleaning: a sweeping away of fiscal dead wood; a renovation of old credit structures and an invention of new ones; a formation - implicit in the sheer existence of five different Rothschild banks in five different countries - of fresh money channels via clearing-houses; a method of replacing the old unwieldy shipping of gold bullion by a worldwide system of debits and credits.
"One of the greatest contributions was Nathan's new technique for floating international loans. He didn't much care to receive dividends in all sorts of strange and cumbersome currencies.
"Now Nathan attracted him - the most powerful investment source of the nineteenth century - by making foreign bonds payable in Pounds Sterling" (p. 96).
As the wealth and power of the Rothschilds grew in size and influence so did their intelligence gathering network. They had their 'agents' strategically located in all the capitals and trading centers of Europe, gathering and developing various types of intelligence. Like most family exploits, it was based on a combination of very hard work and sheer cunning.
Their unique spy system started out when 'the boys' began sending messages to each other through a network of couriers. Soon it developed into something much more elaborate, effective and far reaching. It was a spy network par excellence. Its stunning speed and effectiveness gave the Rothschilds a clear edge in all their dealings on an international level.
"Rothschild coaches careened down the highways; Rothschild boats set sail across the Channel; Rothschild agents were swift shadows along the streets. They carried cash, securities, letters and news. Above all, news - the latest exclusive news to be vigorously processed at stock market and commodity bourse.
"And there was no news more precious than the outcome at Waterloo..." (The Rothschilds p. 94).
Upon the battle of Waterloo depended the future of the European continent. If the Grande Armee of Napoleon emerged victorious France would be undisputed master of all she surveyed on the European front. If Napoleon was crushed into submission England would hold the balance of power in Europe and would be in a position to greatly expand its sphere of influence.
Historian John Reeves, a Rothschild partisan, reveals in his book The Rothschilds, Financial Rulers of the Nations, 1887, page 167, that "one cause of his [Nathan's] success was the secrecy with which he shrouded, and the tortuous policy with which he misled those who watched him the keenest."
There were vast fortunes to be made - and lost - on the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo. The Stock Exchange in London was at fever pitch as traders awaited news of the outcome of this battle of the giants. If Britain lost, English consuls would plummet to unprecedented depths. If Britain was victorious, the value of the consul would leap to dizzying new heights.
As the two huge armies closed in for their battle to the death, Nathan Rothschild had his agents working feverishly on both sides of the line to gather the most accurate possible information as the battle proceeded. Additional Rothschild agents were on hand to carry the intelligence bulletins to a Rothschild command post strategically located nearby.
Late on the afternoon of June 15, 1815, a Rothschild representative jumped on board a specially chartered boat and headed out into the channel in a hurried dash for the English coast. In his possession was a top secret report from Rothschild's secret service agents on the progress of the crucial battle. This intelligence data would prove indispensable to Nathan in making some vital decisions.
The special agent was met at Folkstone the following morning at dawn by Nathan Rothschild himself. After quickly scanning the highlights of the report Rothschild was on his way again, speeding towards London and the Stock Exchange.
Arriving at the Exchange amid frantic speculation on the outcome of the battle, Nathan took up his usual position beside the famous 'Rothschild Pillar.' Without a sign of emotion, without the slightest change of facial expression the stony-faced, flint eyed chief of the House of Rothschild gave a predetermined signal to his agents who were stationed nearby.
Rothschild agents immediately began to dump consuls on the market. As hundred of thousands of dollars worth of consuls poured onto the market their value started to slide. Then they began to plummet.
Nathan continued to lean against 'his' pillar, emotionless, expressionless. He continued to sell, and sell and sell. Consuls kept on falling. Word began to sweep through the Stock Exchange: "Rothschild knows." "Rothschild knows." "Wellington has lost at Waterloo."
The selling turned into a panic as people rushed to unload their 'worthless' consuls or paper money for gold and silver in the hope of retaining at least part of their wealth. Consuls continued their nosedive towards oblivion. After several hours of feverish trading the consul lay in ruins. It was selling for about five cents on the dollar.
Nathan Rothschild, emotionless as ever, still leaned against his pillar. He continued to give subtle signals. But these signals were different. They were so bubtly different that only the highly trained Rothschild agents could detect the change. On the cue from their boss, dozens of Rothschild agents made their way to the order desks around the Exchange and bought every consul in sight for just a 'song'!
A short time later the 'official' news arrived in the British capital. England was now the master of the European scene.
Within seconds the consul skyrocketed to above its original value. As the significance of the British victory began to sink into the public consciousness, the value of consuls rose even higher.
Napoleon had 'met his Waterloo.' Nathan had bought control of the British economy. Overnight, his already vast fortune was multiplied twenty times over.
Owing to Napoleon's seizure of Holland in 1803, the leaders of the anti-Napoleonic league chose Frankfort as a financial center where-from to obtain the sinews of war. After the battle of Jena in 1806 the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel fled to Denmark, where he had already deposited much of his wealth through the agency of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, leaving in the hands of the latter specie and works of art of the value of 600,000 pounds. According to legend, these were hidden away in wine-casks, and, escaping the search of Napoleon's soldiers when they entered Frankfort, were restored intact in the same casks in 1814, when the elector returned to his electorate (see Marbot, "Memoirs," 1891, i. 310-311). The facts are somewhat less romantic, and more business-like. Rothschild, so far from being in danger, was on such good terms with Napoleon's nominee, Prince Dalberg, that he had been made in 1810 a member of the Electoral College of Darmstadt. The elector's money had been sent to Nathan in London, who in 1808 utilized it to purchase 800,000 pounds worth of gold from the East India Company, knowing that it would be needed for Wellington's Peninsular campaign. He made no less than four profits on this: (1) on the sale of Wellington's paper, (2) on the sale of the gold to Wellington, (3) on its repurchase, and (4) on forwarding it to Portugal. This was the beginning of the great fortunes of the house,
Following their crushing defeat at Waterloo, the French struggled to get back on their feet financially. In 1817 they negotiated a substantial loan from the prestigious French banking house of Ouvrard and from the well-known bankers Baring Brothers of London. The Rothschilds had been left on the outside looking in.
The following year the French government was in need of another loan. As the bonds issued in 1817 with the help of Ouvrard and Baring Brothers were increasing in value on the Paris market, and in other European financial centers, it appeared certain that the French government would retain the services of these two distinguished banking houses.
The Rothschild brothers tried most of the gimmicks in their vast repertoire to influence the French government to give them the business. Their efforts were in vain.
The French aristocrats, who prided themselves on their elegance and superior breeding, viewed the Rothschilds as mere peasants, upstarts who needed to be kept in their place. The fact that the Rothschilds had vast financial resources, lived in the most luxurious homes and were attired in the most elegant and expensive clothes obtainable cut no ice with the highly class conscious French nobility. The Rothschilds were viewed as uncouth - lacking in social graces. If we are to believe most historical accounts, their appraisal of the first generation Rothschilds was probably valid.
One major piece of armament in the Rothschild arsenal the French had overlooked or ignored - their unprecedented cunning in the use and manipulation of money.
On November 5, 1818, something very unexpected occurred. After a year of steady appreciation the value of the French government bonds began to fall. With each passing day the decline in their value became more pronounced. Within a short space of time other government securities began to suffer too.
The atmosphere in the court of Louis XVIII was tense. Grim faced aristocrats pondered the fate of the country. They hoped for the best but feared the worst! The only people around the French court who weren't deeply concerned were James and Karl Rothschild. They smiled - but said nothing!
Slowly a sneaking suspicion began to take shape in the minds of some onlookers. Could those Rothschild brothers be the cause of the nation's economic woes? Could they have secretly manipulated the bond market and engineered the panic?
They had! During October 1818, Rothschild agents, using their masters' limitless reserves, had bought huge quantities of the French government bonds issued through their rivals Ouvrard and Baring Brothers. This caused the bonds to increase in value. Then, on November 5th, they began to dump the bonds in huge quantities on the open market in the main commercial centers of Europe, throwing the market into a panic.
Suddenly the scene in the Aix palace changed. The Rothschilds, who were patiently biding their time and waiting quietly in an ante room, were ushered into the presence of the king. They were now he center of attention. Their clothes were now the height of fashion. "Their money [was] the darling of the best borrowers." The Rothschilds had gained control of France...and control is the name of the game!
Benjamin Disraeli, who was the prime minister of Britain, wrote a novel titled Coningsby. The Jewish Encyclopaedia, Vol. 10, pp. 501, 502 describes the book as "an ideal portrait" of the Rothschild Empire. Disraeli characterized Nathan (in conjunction with his four brothers) as "the lord and master of the money markets of the world, and of course virtally lord and master of everything else. He literally held the revenues of southern Italy in pawn, and monarchs and ministers of all countries courted his advice and were guided by his suggestions."
The financial coups performed by the Rothschilds in England in 1815, and in France three years later, are just two of the many they have staged worldwide over the years.
There has, however, been a major change in the tactics used to fleece the public of their hard earned money. From being brazenly open in their use and exploitation of people and nations, the Rothschilds have shrunk from the limelight and now operate through and behind a wide variety of fronts.
Their 'modern' approach is explained by biographer Frederic Morton: "Rothschilds love to glisten. But to the sorrow of the socially ambitious, Rothschilds glisten only in camera, for and among their own kind.
"Their penchant for reticence seems to have grown in recent generations. The founder of the house enjoined it a long time ago; but some of his sons, while storming Europe's innermost bastions of power, wrapped their hands around every weapon, including the rawest publicity. Today the family grooms the inaudibility and invisibility of its presence. As a result, some believe that little is left apart from a great legend. And the Rothschilds are quite content to let legend be their public relations.
"Though they control scores of industrial, commercial, mining and tourist corporations, not one bears the name Rothschild. Being private partnerships, the family houses never need to, and never do, publish a single public balance sheet, or any other report of their financial condition" (The Rothschilds. pp. 18, 19).
Throughout their long history the Rothschilds have gone to great lengths to create the impression that they operate within the framework of 'democracy.' This posture is calculated to deceive, to lead people away from the fact that their real aim is the elimination of all competition and the creation of a world-wide monopoly. Hiding behind a multitude of 'fronts' they have done a masterful job of deception.
It would be extraordinarily naive to even consider the possibility that a family as ambitious, as cunning and as monopolistically minded as the Rothschilds could resist the temptation of becoming heavily involved on the American front.
Following their conquest of Europe early in the 1800s, the Rothschilds cast their covetous eyes on the most precious gem of them all - the United States.
America was unique in modern history. It was only the second nation in history that had ever been formed with the Bible as its law book. Its uniquely magnificent Constitution was specifically designed to limit the power of government and to keep its citizens free and prosperous. Its citizens were basically industrious immigrants who 'yearned to breath free' and who asked nothing more than to be given the opportunity to live and work in such a wonderfully stimulating environment.
The results - the 'fruit' - of such a unique experiment were so indescribably brilliant that America became a legend around the globe. Many millions across the far flung continents of the world viewed America the Beautiful as the promised land.
The Big Bankers in Europe - the Rothschilds and their cohorts - viewed the wonderful results borne by this unique experiment from an entirely different perspective; they looked upon it as a major threat to their future plans. The establishment Times of London stated: "If that mischievous financial policy which had its origin in the North American Republic [i.e. honest Constitutionally authorized no debt money] should become indurated down to a fixture, then that government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off its debts and be without a debt [to the international bankers]. It will become prosperous beyond precedent in the history of the civilized governments of the world. The brains and wealth of all countries will go to North America. That government must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe."
The Rothschilds and their friends sent in their financial termites to destroy America because it was becoming "prosperous beyond precedent."
The first documentable evidence of Rothschild involvement in the financial affairs of the United States came in the late 1820s and early 1830s when the family, through their agent Nicholas Biddie, fought to defeat Andrew Jackson's move to curtail the international bankers. The Rothschilds lost the first round when in 1832, President Jackson vetoed the move to renew the charter of the 'Bank of the United States' (a central bank controlled by the international bankers). In 1836 the bank went out of business.
In the years following Independence, a close business relationship had developed between the cotton growing aristocracy in the South and the cotton manufacturers in England. The European bankers decided that this business connection was America's Achilles Heel, the door through which the young American Republic could be successfully attacked and overcome.
The Illustrated University History, 1878, p. 504, tells us that the southern states swarmed with British agents. These conspired with local politicians to work against the best interests of the United States. Their carefully sown and nurtured propaganda developed into open rebellion and resulted in the secession of South Carolina on December 29, 1860. Within weeks another six states joined the conspiracy against the Union, and broke away to form the Confederate States of America, with Jefferson Davis as President.
The plotters raided armies, seized forts, arsenals, mints and other Union property. Even members of President Buchanan's Cabinet conspired to destroy the Union by damaging the public credit and working to bankrupt the nation. Buchanan claimed to deplore secession but took no steps to check it, even when a U.S. ship was fired upon by South Carolina shore batteries.
Shortly thereafter Abraham Lincoln became President, being inaugurated on March 4, 1861. Lincoln immediately ordered a blockade on Southern ports, to cut off supplies that were pouring in from Europe. The 'official' date for the start of the Civil War is given as April 12, 1861, when Fort Sumter in South Carolina was bombarded by the Confederates, but it obviously began at a much earlier date.
In December, 1861, large numbers of European Troops (British, French and Spanish) poured into Mexico in defiance of the Monroe Doctrine. This, together with widespread European aid to the Confederacy strongly indicated that the Crown was preparing to enter the war. The outlook for the North, and the future of the Union, was bleak indeed.
In this hour of extreme crisis, Lincoln appealed to the Crown's perennial enemy, Russia, for assistance. When the envelope containing Lincoln's urgent appeal was given to Czar Nicholas II, he weighed it unopened in his hand and stated: "Before we open this paper or know its contents, we grant any request it may contain."
Unannounced, a Russian fleet under Admiral Liviski, steamed into New York harbor on September 24, 1863, and anchored there, The Russian Pacific fleet, under Admiral Popov, arrived in San Francisco on October 12. Of this Russian act, Gideon Wells said: "They arrived at the high tide of the Confederacy and the low tide of the North, causing England and France to hesitate long enough to turn the tide for the North" (Empire of "The City," p. 90).
History reveals that the Rothschilds were heavily involved in financing both sides in the Civil War. Lincoln put a damper on their activities when, in 1862 and 1863, he refused to pay the exorbitant rates of interest demanded by the Rothschilds and issued constitutionally-authorized, interest free United States notes. For this and other acts of patriotism Lincoln was shot down in cold-blood by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, just five days after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
Booth's grand-daughter, Izola Forrester, states in This One Mad Act that Lincoln's assassin had been in close contact with mysterious Europeans prior to the slaying, and had made at least one trip to Europe. Following the killing, Booth was whisked away to safety by members of the Knights of the Golden Circle. According to the author, Booth lived for many years following his disappearance.
Undaunted by their initial failures to destroy the United States, the international bankers pursued their objective with relentless zeal. Between the end of the Civil War and 1914, their main agents in the United States were Kuhn, Loeb and Co. and the J. P. Morgan Co.
A brief history of Kuhn, Loeb and Co. appeared in Newsweek magazine on February 1, 1936: "Abraham Kuhn and Solomon Loeb were general merchandise merchants in Lafayette, Indiana, in 1850. As usual in newly settled regions, most transactions were on credit. They soon found out that they were bankers... In 1867, they established Kuhn, Loeb and Co., bankers, in New York City, and took in a young German immigrant, Jacob Schiff, as partner. Young Schiff had important financial connections in Europe. After ten years, Jacob Schiff was head of Kuhn, Loeb and Co., Kuhn having retured. Under Schiff's guidance, the house brought European capital into contact with American industry."
Schiff's "important financial connections in Europe" were the Rothschilds and their German representatives, the M. M. Warburg Company of Hamburg and Amsterdam. Within twenty years the Rothschilds, through their Warburg-Schiff connection, had provided the capital that enabled John D. Rockefeller to greatly expand his Standard Oil empire. They also financed the activities of Edward Harriman (Railroads) and Andrew Carnegie (Steel).
At the turn of the 20th century the Rothschilds, not satisfied with the progress being made by their American operntions, sent one of their top experts, Paul Moritz Warburg, over to New York to take direct charge of their assault upon the only true champion of individual liberty and prosperity - the United States.
At a hearing of the House Committee on Banking and Currency in 1913, Warburg revealed that he was "a member of the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Co. I came to this country in 1902, having been born and educated in the banking business in Hamburg, Germany, and studied banking in London and Paris, and have gone all around the world...."
In the late 1800s, people didn't study banking in London and "all around the world" unless they had a special mission to perform!
Early in 1907, Jacob Schiff, the Rothschild-owned boss of Kuhn, Loeb and Co., in a speech to the New York Chamber of Commerce, warned that "unless we have a Central Bank with adequate control of credit resources, this country is going to undergo the most severe and far reaching money panic in its history."
Shortly thereafter, the United States plunged into a monetary crisis that had all the earmarks of a skilly planned Rothschild 'job.' The ensuing panic financially mined tens of thousands of innocent people across the country - and made billions for the banking elite. The purpose for the 'crisis' was two-fold:
(1) To make a financial 'killing' for the Insiders, and (2) To impress on the American people the 'great need' for a central bank.
Paul Warburg told the Banking and Currency Committee: "In the Panic of 1907, the first suggestion I made was, 'let us have a national clearing house' [Central Bank]. The Aldrich Plan [for a Central Bank] contains many things that are simply fundamental rules of banking. Your aim must be the same...."
Digging deep into their bag of deceitful practices, the international bankers pulled off their greatest coup to date - the creation of the privately owned Federal Reserve System, which placed control of the finances of the United States securely in the hands of the power-crazed money monopolists. Paul Warburg became the 'Fed's' first chairman!
Congressman Charles Lindbergh put his finger firmly on the truth when he stated, just after the 'Federal' Reserve Act was passed by a depleted Congress on December 23, 1913: "The Act establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President [Wilson] signs this Bill, the invisible government of the monetary power will be legalized....The greatest crime of the ages is perpetrated by this banking and currency bill."
(read also on "Yachtgate" - Nathaniel Rothschild´s collusion with British and Russian Jewry)